Is the devil so terrible as he is painted? The primary danger lies in the bacteria and viruses that can be in poorly purified water, or in the case of stagnation in the pipes, they appear in the standing. So, “dirty” tap water can cause an intestinal infection, diphtheria, typhoid.
Another danger is the complete absence of trace elements or, on the contrary, their excessively high content. In the first case, there may be a deficiency of, for example, iodine, which is bad for the thyroid gland, or calcium, which is detrimental to bones and teeth. Overabundance can cause equally serious consequences. Thus, a large amount of cadmium in water leads to problems with the joints, mercury and lead - to damage the central nervous system, and iron not only damages electrical appliances and plumbing, but also has a bad effect on health.
Is there any benefit?
In most cities of the world, especially in Russia, Europe, America, drinking water is taken from surface natural sources, that is, rivers or lakes. Naturally, it is very different in its microelement composition from water from underground sources. So, there is little calcium, fluorine, iodine and magnesium in it, and the subsequent purification often removes the insignificant amount of minerals that was present initially. Therefore, the deficit of these microelements is a frequent problem of the inhabitants of megacities. Naturally, it is difficult to speak about the benefits of such water, at least in Russia.
However, the alternative - bottled water - often does not help to cope with the deficit, since most of the products in the stores are the same tap water, which is only additionally purified and artificially enriched with useful elements. When buying bottled water, read the label and buy artesian water; it does not need to be so thoroughly cleaned and enriched.
How to determine the quality of tap water?
Many people think that they can determine the quality of water organoleptically. However, this is only possible in extreme cases. So, everyone understands that clean water should be clear and colorless. If you see that something is cloudy or mixed with color (brown or yellow) is flowing from the tap, you should definitely not drink such water. However, such water happens only in places where it is practically not cleaned, or if there are a lot of impurities in it. In Russia, even in the smallest cities, this can be met briefly - after shutting down, rusty water can sometimes flow, and it can be quickly discharged. In other cases, impurities and pathogens, of course, can not be distinguished with the naked eye.
Nor will you taste it. However, it is quite understandable when there are too many impurities in the water, for example, in old houses with worn communications. The taste can be felt a surplus of iron, copper, nitrates, petroleum products, chlorine and hydrogen sulfide. It also often changes the taste of a liquid in summer, when blooming water may smell like damp (no matter how paradoxical it may sound) or swamp. If for some reason you don’t like the taste of water, it’s better not to drink it, but to trust your body.
So, it is very difficult to feel the impurities with your eyes, nose and mouth, so what can you do to find out if you can drink tap water? The easiest way is to take a sample for analysis in a special laboratory.
Since this method is good only in the place of your permanent residence, how to know about the quality of water, if you come on vacation or a business trip? First, inquire with tour operators in advance whether it is possible to drink tap water in the country or city where you are going. If the trip is independent or business, then upon arrival ask about it from local residents, for example, the hotel staff.
There are also special information sites, such as the project Is the water safe to drink. On their website you can enter the name of the city and get information about the suitability of tap water. They receive data from the American Center for Disease Control and Prevention and have a base from many cities around the world, including 28 Russian ones. More complete and up-to-date information on Russian cities can be found on the websites of the Rospotrebnadzor and Vodokanal of the relevant settlements, especially in large cities and regional centers.
Existing cleaning systems
The most common system used in Russia is cleaning with reagents, that is, chlorine. It kills all pathogenic bacteria and, moreover, prevents the development of new ones in the pipes themselves. Many habitually are afraid of chlorine, but its content in water is strictly regulated, constantly monitored and can not harm a person. In addition, chlorine is a volatile compound, and therefore it is possible to take water in a jug or kettle and let it stand for a while so that it evaporates. Innovative reagents, such as aluminum oxychloride, are also used here and there. It has been successfully used in Novosibirsk since 1995.
In 2008, Russia began to apply a new method of water purification with ultraviolet light. St. Petersburg has become a pioneer in this. However, this method does not kill bacteria, and therefore does not make water completely safe. Therefore, this method is used only in conjunction with chlorination.
In Europe, for example, in Finland, or in Canada, the water is ozonized, that is, it is disinfected with ozone. This gas oxidizes the shell of the virus, preventing it from dividing and joining the cells of the human body. However, this method does not help from bacteria.
Quality and safety of water in Russia
Russian water treatment systems are quite modern and technically equipped to supply the living rooms with water of quite decent quality and certainly safe for life. At least we are assured of this. At the same time, major cities take water from nearby rivers, lakes and reservoirs and, for example, during the flood period, fertilizers or impurities from the fields can get into them. In summer, the period of flowering of water is strongly reflected in its taste and smell. Therefore, its quality is not constant, but safety is always at the highest level, which means that pathogenic microorganisms cannot be obtained through water.
Also a big problem, mainly in small towns and old districts, is the deterioration of communications. Old pipelines, as well as stagnation of fluid in some areas, contribute to the appearance of various unpleasant impurities in the water.
Also much depends on the natural features of water bodies. In the Neva, for example, the water is soft, so a liquid flows from the St. Petersburg tap in which there are practically no trace elements useful to man. And in Kalmykia, the water tastes salty due to the high salt content in local water bodies and has a negative effect on the kidneys.
What is the situation in major cities of Central Russia?
Let's start with the capital - is it possible to drink tap water in Moscow? Experts answer that you can. Every 24 hours at Mosgorvodokanal inspections and water intakes are carried out, and in all areas of the city the fluid in the tap is bacteriologically safe, and the content of impurities is always within the normal range. However, Moscow water is too rich in iron, because of this, for example, rust remains on plumbing. Excess iron is not good for health, however, and will not bring much harm, so do not doubt whether you can drink water from the tap in Moscow. Experts answer - you can, if there are no alternatives.
In St. Petersburg, water is taken from the Neva and purified in two stages. First, reagents, namely sodium hypochlorite, and then ultraviolet. The first stage kills bacteria, and the second - viruses, making the water in the northern capital completely safe. It means that the locals may not be afraid, wondering whether it is possible to drink tap water in St. Petersburg. However, in many areas of the city it can be high in iron due to the fact that the water in the Neva is very soft and corrodes steel communications. Drinking it is not very dangerous, but it is better not to abuse it.
Despite the fact that the Vodokanal system seeks to improve the quality of water, there are cities where, on the contrary, it becomes worse. For example, if earlier the locals answered affirmatively to the question of whether they could drink water from the tap in Sochi, but now they are trying to buy it in bottles. It's all about changing the principle of cleaning - chlorine changed other reagents that changed the taste of water and made it harder.
In the regions, the situation is such that large cities can boast of good water, but small cities often have problems. For example, the third largest city in Russia, Novosibirsk, is regularly included in the list of 10 domestic cities with the best water. Therefore, Novosibirsk residents can live in peace and have no doubt whether it is possible to drink tap water in Novosibirsk.
But in Elista everything is very bad - the steppe region causes a shortage of water, its poor quality and the deterioration of communications. Slightly more fortunate for those who have no large natural water intakes at their side, such as, for example, in the Tula region - here the water in the faucet is artesian.
Crane fluid in Europe
Traveling in Europe, you can relax, especially in large cities: the water is completely safe for humans, at least according to official sources. However, if in the Central, Northern and Southern parts of Europe, the situation with water is good in almost all countries, then in Eastern it is better not to drink it directly from the aqueduct, especially in Albania, Moldova, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovakia. Also, not the most suitable for human fluid flows from the taps of the Bulgarians and Montenegrins.
Many tourists are puzzled by the question of whether you can drink water from the tap in Cyprus. Locals believe that it is possible, but in this region there are problems with fresh moisture, and water treatment plants have to desalinate sea water, which affects its quality. It is quite possible to wash it, but you should not drink it.
As for Western Europe, as already noted, the water in it is suitable for drinking, especially in large cities. So, do not doubt whether you can drink tap water in Prague, Vienna or Berlin. It is no different from bottled. It is not too soft, but not tough, does not give a raid in the kettle or on the sink and is completely safe. On the question of whether it is possible to drink tap water in Amsterdam, the world community responds that it can be safely. Here, cleaning is approached with great responsibility. True, for example, French doctors, in the affirmative answering the question of whether it is possible to drink tap water in Paris, make a small reservation - for infants it is better to boil it.
The safest water in Northern Europe, here you can pour it and drink in the sink of a public toilet, it is poured directly into a glass in a restaurant and given to babies. Doctors can even prescribe a patient to drink tap water more often, as it contains a good and necessary balance of salts and minerals.
The United States, of course, has the most advanced tap water treatment systems, and its quality throughout the country is at a decent level. There are exceptions, especially small cities, where there are many harmful impurities, such as lead or copper.
And here, for example, in San Francisco, thanks to unique natural sources, water is considered one of the cleanest and most beneficial in the country. At the same time, Americans have a slightly different problem with drinking water - they spend huge amounts of money to buy bottled water, which is often not only not better than tap water, but also more harmful because of plastic containers, which emit harmful substances and decompose for a long time.
Where to drink tap water is not worth it?
There are countries in the world where it is impossible not only to drink water, they do not even recommend brushing your teeth with it and typing in your mouth when taking a shower.
This includes developing poor countries such as Afghanistan, India or Bangladesh, and most of the Southeast Asian countries - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, as well as a significant part of Africa - Ethiopia, Chad, Ghana and others.
In these countries, drink only bottled water and take only a closed bottle in a restaurant, as the waiter can cheat and pour the liquid from the tap into an empty container.
How to make tap water cleaner?
If you are not sure whether you can drink water from the tap or if you need to clean it, for example while traveling, then stock up with activated carbon. He perfectly disinfects. Another recognized bactericidal agent is silver, place it in a container of water for a short time. But the best is boiling. It can be used both at home and in a hotel.
If you need to make your home water more drinkable, try a filter to clean it. Jugs are quite suitable, but do not forget to regularly change the cartridge. Flow and reverse osmosis systems are more efficient and able to give you the desired quality of clean and healthy drinking water.
Statistics and Facts
For a start it is worth getting acquainted with the statistics, and it is disappointing. Over fifty years of life, an average person drinks about 45 tons of water, and with it receives not the most useful impurities. So, during this period about 15-16 kilograms of chlorides enter the body, which corresponds to two buckets of bleach. A person gets about two kg of nitrates. For fifty years, the dose of iron reaches about 14-15 grams, which corresponds to one nail of medium size. Approximately 23-24 grams of aluminum is also ingested, and this amount is equivalent to a spoon.
The Association of Water Supply and Water Disposal conducted research in the course of which it found out that the water supply system is worn out by more than 50%. And if we consider that such pipes are usually laid in the immediate vicinity of the sewer, then we can conclude that with strong corrosion and rotting of the walls of the faucet water can flow with impurities from the sewer. Especially this problem is relevant for residents of old houses with worn communications.
An interesting fact: in some countries tap water is so pure that you can drink it right away. These states include Switzerland, France, Norway, Italy, Sweden, Iceland.
What is dangerous water from the tap?
Why is it dangerous to drink tap water? There are several reasons:
- The method of its chlorination is usually used for water purification, and the optimum and permissible concentration of a substance is 0.2-0.4 milligrams per liter (the maximum content according to the norms cannot exceed 0.5 mg). But, firstly, in reality, everything happens differently, secondly, if you drink tap water constantly and in large quantities, then chlorine can accumulate in the body and have a negative effect on it. So, it damages the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and increases the risk of developing cancer of the digestive system. Chlorine is also able to adversely affect blood vessels and heart muscle, respiratory tissue, causing the emergence of such dangerous diseases as ischemia, atherosclerosis, asthma. And chlorinated water often causes allergic reactions and strongly irritates the skin.
- Water from the tap contains iron, which, when the permissible doses are exceeded, is deposited in the kidneys and extremely negatively affects their work, and also often leads to the formation of stones in these and other organs.
- Nitrates, which can also be present in the water flowing from the tap, provoke oxygen deprivation of the brain and all tissues of the human body, have a very negative effect on the functioning of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, as well as cause delays and pathologies of embryo development during pregnancy.
- The composition of tap water includes metal salts, most often magnesium and calcium. They form limescale on household appliances, pipes and plumbing, as well as harm to human health. These substances form stones in the kidneys and gall bladder, as well as deposits in the joints, reducing their mobility and causing inflammation.
- Aluminum is able to accumulate in the liver and destroy its cells, as well as penetrate into the brain, causing serious disruption of the central nervous system.
- If the pipes are old, rusty and partially rotten, sewage water can enter them, containing a lot of dangerous pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms causing such serious infections as dysentery, typhoid, salmonellosis and others.
How to understand that drinking tap water is not worth it?
The most effective way to assess the quality of tap water is to analyze it. Therefore, if you want to find out the composition, then go to the laboratory, taking with you a bottle of newly collected water. As a result, you will receive a detailed report with the results and will be able to find out exactly what enters your body.
But there are clear signs of poor quality tap water and its unsuitability for drinking:
- The presence of significant turbidity. If through a transparent glass filled with water nothing is visible, then this is a clear sign of poor quality.
- Presence of yellowish, red, greenish, brown or any other shade. Good water should be clear.
- Unpleasant smell: putrid, rotten or acidic.
- The formation of a significant sediment after settling water. На дне оседают различные примеси, чаще всего металлы и их соли.
- Неприятный привкус: горьковатый, металлический, кислый, химический.
Как улучшить качество воды из-под крана?
Чтобы сделать воду пригодной для питья и безопасной для ребёнка или взрослого человека, можно использовать несколько способов улучшения качества:
- Фильтрация – самый эффективный метод очистки. The filter allows you to hold most of the impurities in the composition of the water, including small impurities. But for a complete purification pick up the device, taking into account the characteristics of water. So, some models cope only with fairly large particles, while others even with microscopic ones. The filter can be installed on the faucet or built into the water supply. There are also models-jugs.
- Defending is a proven and very effective method. If you pour water into the container and leave it for some time, solid particles will settle on the bottom, and the rest (in particular chloride) will evaporate. But the duration of settling must be at least seven to eight hours. It is also best to choose a glass container.
- Boiling is used to improve the quality of water by many people, and it allows the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. But there are a few pitfalls. First, some bacteria die only after boiling for 10-15 minutes. Secondly, during heat treatment, a certain part of the water evaporates, and this means that the concentration of metal salts, which remain in place, increases.
- Freezing. The mechanism is quite simple: first the water freezes, and only then the impurities contained in it. To clean, place the filled container in the freezer and wait. When most of the water freezes, drain the rest. The melted ice will be cleaner, but still not perfect, as some of the harmful substances may be present.
- Activated carbon attracts and absorbs harmful substances. Immerse several tablets in a container with water and leave overnight. And you can crush them and put them in a bag, which is then dropped into a jug.
- Some believe that you can purify water and improve it with silver. Ions of this metal really change the composition for the better, but do not completely purify water.
Do not use water from the tap without additional processing. Clean it to make it drinkable.
How to clean water
Experts of the World Health Organization are sure that there are few water reservoirs left in nature, whose water is safe and useful for humans. Most often, large and small cities take water in rivers and reservoirs that have already been polluted. Therefore, the water is first purified at special stations. It is chlorinated, ozonized, coagulated, defended, filtered, chlorinated again, and only then does the water flow into the water supply system.
During the melting of snow and during floods, the water is additionally treated with activated carbon and potassium permanganate or with additional chlorination.
It is around the chlorination that many copies are broken. Chlorine kills any bacteria - even cholera, dysentery and typhoid fever, but it harms humans. Chlorine dries the skin, is dangerous for allergies and people prone to asthma.
Doctors are concerned not so much residual chlorine, as its compounds. For example, Roskontrol experts believe that when chlorine reacts with organic substances, trihalomethanes are formed - carcinogens that can contribute to the formation of cancer cells.
When boiling in chlorinated water, dioxins are formed - toxins that suppress human immunity. These impurities can lead to liver and kidney diseases and other health complications. Of course, there will be no immediate effect from them, but in the distant future health can be undermined.
Dr. Herbert Schwartz of Cumberland College (USA) considers water chlorination to be so dangerous that it requires a ban.
But that's not all. From the stations, purified, disinfected and safe water, corresponding to all SanPiNs, enters the water supply system and passes along rusty, old and sometimes untight pipes several kilometers to the apartment. Only in Moscow, the total length of the aqueduct is 9,000 kilometers. This is more than the distance from the capital to Vladivostok. Along the way, water washes away dirt and rust from the pipe walls.
As a result, a "cocktail" of chemical compounds is poured from the tap. Not without reason in SanPiN the maximum permissible concentrations of these substances are listed almost on 20 pages.
The water can be and most often are present: chlorides, sulfates, sulfides (hydrogen sulfide), iron, manganese, ammonium (ammonia), silicon and aluminum. And there may be benzopyrene, benzene, cadmium and magnesium, nitrates, pesticides, phenols, surfactants and petroleum products.
And this is despite the fact that in Moscow, for example, microbiological indicators of water are checked 2 times a day, organoleptic - up to 12 times, and indicators on residual chlorine - every hour. Every day, 1000 chemical, 100 bacteriological and 20 hydrobiological analyzes are carried out at the stations.
According to the research of the candidate of chemical sciences Oleg Mosin, the tap water at the outlet from the stations in Moscow meets the standards, and in some respects it exceeds the water of European cities. But even he is concerned about the quality of water running from the tap and believes that the situation in the regions is worse.
Yes, all these dangerous substances are present in extremely small doses. But after all are present!
But let's not rush and burn yourself to the sick.
According to Rosstat, in 2011 the average life expectancy in Russia was 69.83 years. In 2013, it increased to 70.8 years, and in 2014 - to 71 years, which exceeds the figures for 1990.
Thirdly, it is with drinking water that the population receives such an essential trace element as fluorine - it is added to the water.
The lack of fluoride causes problems with the teeth, with the joints, suppresses blood formation and immunity, causes problems with the healing of fractures.
Fourthly, besides fluorine, a person in microdoses needs such substances as arsenic, the lack of which causes the development of allergic reactions, chromium, which is involved in the carbohydrate metabolism and is necessary for the heart to work, silicon, without which hair falls out. Vanadium is also needed, without which diabetes and atherosclerosis can develop.
In addition, in normal tap water, there are other salts that are vital to man. In 2003, interesting facts were presented at the symposium of the Center for Environment and Health in Rome. It turned out that residents of the northern regions of the Irkutsk region, drinking harder water, all other things being equal, less likely to suffer from goiter, high blood pressure, diseases of the stomach and intestines, and pregnant women and newborns have fewer complications.
The calcium content in water was 30–90 mg / l, magnesium — 17–35 mg / l, and total mineralization — about 400 mg / l (for water containing bicarbonates).
What to do?
If you think that substandard water flows from the tap, you can switch to bottled water. But only if they are confident in the manufacturer. After all, the fact that it is manufacturers of bottled that most often speak about the dangers of tap water can not but be alarming.
To make tap water safer, you need to drain it for a few minutes, then let it stand for at least 24 hours and then filter.
Not all filters are equally useful. For example, US scientists believe that carbon filters are harmful. Coal gets into the water and forms dioxide when boiling.
Remember that bacterial purification of water produces filters more expensive than $ 300.
But both scientists and physicians agree that any filter is better than nothing. Just do not forget to wash and change the filters, otherwise the positive effect may become negative.
What is dangerous water from the tap
Probably, each of us heard about how harmful tap water is. But why is it so dangerous and how can it affect our health? Let's figure it out.
- For over 100 years, purification stations have added chlorine to tap water. As a result of such a compound, harmful substances are formed which, if consumed with such water, can accumulate in the body and contribute to the appearance of cancer cells.
Copper, manganese, arsenic and lead can also be found in tap water. It sounds scary, but even more terrible is their effect on the body. Manganese develops anemia, copper affects the mucous membranes of the kidneys and liver, lead slows down mental development, and arsenic paralyzes the entire nervous system.
Allowed to drink and eat
- River water, but for this it is necessary to collect in a flowing place, filter and boil.
- If the water from the drinking well, then it must be at least 8-9 meters deep and located far from the sewage.
- Tap water before use is important to defend in an open container and boil.
Now, you know how dangerous water is and how much water can be used without harm to the body. However, do not forget to pass the liquid through the filter! So you clean the water from various particles, impurities and improve its quality. Monitor your health with our tips.
What to do if dirty water flows from the tap?
The first step is to make a recalculation, because on the basis of the receipts you pay for clean drinking water, and not a solution that contains the entire periodic table. Of course, it is almost impossible to receive any payments or a reduction in the cost of water, but you are entitled to compensation. But with this problem you can contact Rospotrebnadzor, as well as the company that supplies water to you.
- If there are green or brown drops on the dishes, it means that the water contains a lot of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.
- If the water gives off an earthy, woody or fishy smell, it means that organic compounds are part of the water.
- If there are dark spots on the silverware or black spots on the sink, then there is hydrogen sulfide in the water.
- If the contact of water and aluminum cookware produces foam, it means that there is a high concentration of alkali in water.
- The metallic taste of water suggests that it contains a lot of iron.
- If the water runs with a brown or reddish sediment, it means that the water in the pipes is oxidized by iron.
- If the water is dirty or muddy, it means that there is a lot of air in the pipes or methane is present.
How can you clean dirty water?
- It is necessary to defend the tap water. In the event that the water will settle for a day, many harmful substances will settle. That is why water for flowers and aquarium should be stored in certain containers.
- When the water has settled for some time, it needs to be filtered. You should carefully select the filter. Pay special attention to the filters with silicon or activated carbon, because they most effectively purify water. Water filters based on silicon or activated carbon are the most effective and efficient. These components perfectly absorb harmful substances and impurities. For a long time, people began to use silicon for the purpose of purifying water: they built wells from it or placed silicon in jars.
- It is also possible to carry out cleaning with the help of special preparations, in which the leading role is played by silicon. For cleansing, you must add the drug according to its instructions, carefully prevent and defend the water for two to three hours. Then gently drain without sediment. As a result, you will drink not just purified, but useful, healing water.
Pure water plays an important role for the body, and the fact that a person drinks during his life determines his health and well-being. Purified, healthy water - the main component of good health.
Dangers of tap water
- The very first danger is viruses and bacteria that can persist in poorly purified water or arise in stagnant water in case of stagnation in the pipes. Because of the danger of infection, it is not recommended to drink hot tap water, as well as cold water, even if it is clear, without foreign smell and taste.
- Another danger is the lack or excess of trace elements. For example, iodine deficiency will adversely affect the function of the thyroid gland, and calcium deficiency will affect the strength of bones and teeth. An excess of trace elements is also no less, and sometimes more damaging: an excess of iron not only causes trouble with electrical appliances, but also greatly increases the risk of heart attack, allergic reactions, destroys the liver and the immune system. Excess calcium leads to abnormalities in the cardiovascular system, kidney function, and may be the cause of urolithiasis.
- According to modern SanPiN standards, the quality of water treated at water utilities enterprises corresponds to all items. But in most cities the water supply networks are worn out. The many kilometers running through our networks to our cranes is polluted again. First of all, its turbidity, smell and taste testify to this. Rusty and non-destructive pipes of dirt from communication pipes release such substances as boron, lead and arsenic into the water being transported. They can often become provoking factors for allergic reactions - which is why you can not drink tap water if you have any allergies.
- In addition, for disinfection of tap water passes the stage of cleaning with chlorine. Its concentration in water to healthy people can not cause harm. But a person with asthma or allergies often experiences discomfort, even if he drank quite a bit of such water.
- Antibiotics, hormones and painkillers may also be present in tap water. They enter the sewage treatment plant from sewage and agricultural and farmland wastewater.
- It is worth taking into account the area where you are going to use drinking water from the tap. In most cases, drinking water is taken from the surface of large nearby sources, rivers and lakes. The chemical and qualitative composition of water depends on it.
How to clean tap water
We know that drinking raw water is not recommended, and we boil it out of habit. Boiling will really rid the water of bacteria, but not chlorine. It is possible to get rid of this harmful chemical by settling water in open tanks for several hours, the more - the better. And the already settled water should then be boiled.
You can get rid of harmful impurities by freezing water. Clean water freezes faster, so watch out: as soon as half of the total water volume has become ice, you can safely pour the rest. Drinking water formed after melting ice, you can without risk to health. It is also permissible to use for cooking.
A completely affordable option would be to switch to bottled water. First, make sure that the storage conditions are appropriate. Water should not be exposed to direct sunlight, and packaging should be free from defects. Secondly, pay attention to the technical conditions (TU) on the bottled water labels. So, for example, "TU 9185- ..." means that during the purification the chemical composition of the water was not changed, and its natural properties were preserved. But "TU 0131- ..." says that water purification in this case changed its composition. That is, this water may be extracted from a water supply system or a well, and, accordingly, its quality will be lower.
Empty bottles must be recycled. Read more about this at recyclemap.ru
Another way to clean tap water is filtering. The most common types of filters are “jugs” and flow filters with the installation of a separate tap. They cope well with the task of purifying water from impurities and heavy metals.
So, is it possible to drink raw tap water? Most likely, nothing terrible will happen if you make a couple of sips of such water. But drinking it on a regular basis is not recommended. Choose for yourself the best way to get high-quality drinking water and stay healthy!